Can green card holders vote in local elections?

Can green card holders vote in local elections? Voting is a fundamental part of civic engagement and a core aspect of democratic societies. This post will clarify the voting eligibility of green card holders, or permanent residents, particularly at the local level.

While U.S. citizenship is a clear prerequisite for voting in federal elections, the rules for local elections can vary. Green card holders must grasp these nuances to fully engage in their communities within legal limits.

Understanding green card holder rights

Green card holders, or lawful permanent residents, are non-citizens whom the United States legally authorizes to live and work permanently. Green card holders have similar rights to U.S. citizens in work, education, and healthcare but face restricted political participation.

Unlike U.S. citizens, green card holders cannot vote in federal elections, which include presidential, congressional, and senate races. Federal law restricts non-citizens from voting to preserve the integrity of national elections. The implications of this are significant, as it ensures that only U.S. citizens have a voice in federal government decisions.

Federal and state voting laws

Federal law clearly prohibits non-citizens, including green card holders, from voting in federal elections. This prohibition is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution and further supported by various legislative acts, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, which explicitly states that only U.S. citizens are eligible to vote for federal office holders.

State laws, however, can vary when it comes to non-citizen participation in local elections. While most states align with federal law, restricting voting rights to U.S. citizens only, there are exceptions at more localized levels. For example, some jurisdictions may allow non-citizens to vote in school board elections or other local matters, especially in towns or cities with significant immigrant populations. These cases are rare and typically occur in areas with specific local ordinances that seek to include all community members in decisions directly affecting their daily lives and local services.

Understanding the nuances of state and local legislation is crucial for green card holders to know where they can legally participate in elections, emphasizing the importance of checking local voting laws. This knowledge not only helps them avoid legal pitfalls but also guides them in where they might have a say in local governance.

Local ordinances and exceptions

In a few places across the United States, local ordinances make exceptions to the broader voting laws, allowing non-citizens, including green card holders, to participate in specific types of local elections. These exceptions are often found in municipal or school board elections where local governments seek to increase community involvement regardless of national citizenship status.

For instance, some cities in Maryland, such as Takoma Park and Hyattsville, permit non-citizens to vote in city council elections. These localities argue that because local decisions impact all residents—such as property taxes, school policy, and local services—it is reasonable and fair to include non-citizens who are also affected by these outcomes.

Additionally, San Francisco allows non-citizen parents and guardians of students in the local school district to vote in school board elections. This policy aims to involve those who have a direct stake in the educational environment of their children, promoting a more inclusive approach to community engagement.

These local policies are not without controversy, often sparking debates about the rights of non-citizens in electoral processes. Nonetheless, they represent a commitment to inclusivity, reflecting the belief that all residents, regardless of citizenship status, should have a voice in matters that affect their daily lives and communities.

The importance of local elections

Local elections directly affect residents by shaping decisions on school funding, road repairs, and law enforcement policies. Despite their profound impact, local elections often see lower voter turnout compared to federal elections, which means that each vote can carry more weight.

Green card holders must understand the potential to influence community matters in areas where they are legally permitted to vote. Participating in local elections lets residents shape educational policies, manage public safety, and influence other key local issues. Even where they are not allowed to vote, understanding the issues at stake in local elections can help green card holders advocate more effectively for their communities and engage in civic activities that support their interests and needs.

Engagement in local governance fosters a sense of community and belonging, crucial for those who may one day seek to naturalize as U.S. citizens. It also educates the entire community, citizen and non-citizen alike, about the diverse perspectives that enrich democratic processes at all levels.

Alternatives to voting for civic engagement

While most local and all federal elections restrict green card holders from voting, they can still contribute to their communities and engage civically in numerous other ways. These alternatives provide meaningful opportunities to influence local policies and community conditions without needing the right to vote.

  1. Community boards and advisory committees: Many cities have boards and committees that influence local policies on planning, schools, safety, and other critical issues. These groups often welcome non-citizen participation, providing a platform to voice concerns and contribute expertise.
  2. Volunteering: Engaging in community service through local nonprofits, schools, or community groups is a powerful way to make a direct impact. Volunteering allows individuals to support causes they care about and can influence community projects and initiatives.
  3. Advocacy and activism: Green card holders can join or form advocacy groups that lobby for community changes or support specific causes. This can be an effective way to impact local policy and public opinion, even without a vote.
  4. Community organizing: Organizing community events, meetings, or groups gives residents a chance to discuss community issues, build relationships, and collaborate on solutions. This can strengthen community ties and foster a collaborative spirit among diverse groups.
  5. Education and outreach: By educating themselves and others about local issues, green card holders can raise awareness and influence public discourse. Hosting workshops, writing articles, or speaking at community meetings can amplify their voice and perspective.

These activities enable non-citizens to engage in their communities and prepare for future civic responsibilities as citizens. Engaging in these ways demonstrates a commitment to their community and the principles of civic participation.


Understanding whether green card holders can vote in local elections is vital for those looking to engage fully in their communities. While federal and most state laws restrict non-citizen voting in elections, some local exceptions allow green card holders to participate in specific electoral processes. These exceptions, though limited, highlight the importance of local governance and the potential for inclusive community involvement.

For green card holders unable to vote, there are still numerous ways to influence local affairs and contribute to the community. From joining advisory committees to engaging in advocacy work, these activities allow individuals to play an active role in shaping their environment and preparing for future opportunities in civic life.

It is important for all residents, regardless of citizenship status, to stay informed about their local voting laws and engage in their communities in whatever capacity they can. By doing so, green card holders not only enrich their own lives but also strengthen the democratic fabric of their communities. Encouraging active participation in civic life ensures a diverse, vibrant, and inclusive society.

written by Alexander Alfano
Alexander Joseph Alfano is the Director and Chief Legal Counsel of Financial Legal Group INC. He's a distinguished lawyer in since 1993, specializes in financial services, immigration law, nonprofit corporations, and civil cases.